EDU520 Week 2 Reflection Post

A little humor about kids and technology! I had a good laugh watching this!


“We need technology in every classroom and in every student and teacher’s hand, because it is the pen and paper of our time, and it is the lens through which we experience much of our world.” – David Warlick

So far, I have found this class, Digital Media and Technology, very interesting. I have come across some great and useful information to really get me thinking about digital media in our world. The TEDTalk video that we watched in unit 1 was VERY interesting to me and although I have heard things that he said about learning and technology before he presented the information in a manner that was catching and really made you think. Specifically about the different learning styles of children and how each child cannot be taught the same and expect the same outcomes.


I think that this is one big reason for me why digital technology is a very important part of the learning experience. In the video there were a few different examples of technology that were presented and one that specifically stood out to me and intrigued me was the example of the classroom that uses computers and every day the children walk in the classroom and look for their name on a computer. This computer has the specific lessons that the teacher has decided that they need to complete for the lesson. These children are evaluated by information they gave on the computer along with what their teacher had observed through the day. The teachers are able to develop a customized path for the children so they learn at their own pace. This type of technology allows children to be able to learn at their own pace and the teacher knows that they are really absorbing the information needed to go to the next level within the lesson. The article I have attached here describes why we should integrate technology into the classroom and its importance.

This is the TEDTalk video that I think all teachers or anyone in the education field needs to watch. It is a very insightful video and makes you really think about your students and how they learn.

I currently use technology 75% of my day. BYOD is something near and dear to me. I use my own devices for work and I would have it no other way. It is easier for me to work and be able to be comfortable with my own devices when doing so.  I work at a job from my home in which I am on the computer and phone to do my work. When I do have to travel I am using my laptop wherever I am to stay connected with my work and family. I am also using technology everyday because I am taking my classes online. I stay connected to my classmates along with completing my assignments via my computer and internet. Without this technology my life would be completely different. Technology is very useful and having information at my fingertips at all times allows me to be a more diversified person in many ways. I learn so many different things from something as simple as social media. Things I probably would have never known otherwise. I found this article very interesting. We can see how our lives have been affected by technology in the past 10 years. I chose this article because I came across it when my husband and I were looking to find out ways to make a will. We found out we can actually do it online! Wow, how times have changed. The convenience of having technology can be looked at in positive and negative ways, but for me it is a very positive thing and I don’t know what I would do without it. “But no matter where we go from here, it’s clear that technology is in nearly every aspect of our lives and that we’ll be more connected with it in the future. As this happens, it’s worth noting that the human experience is changing right in front of our eyes.” (Kaiser, B., 2011, para 13)

Kaiser, B. (2011) 10 Years of New Technology and How our Lives Have Changed. Retrieved from

Johnson, L., Adams Becker, S., Estrada, V., and Freeman, A. (2015). NMC Horizon Report: 2015 Higher Education Edition. Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium


My question to all of you, what is your take on the technology used in some classrooms today? Specifically the use of the monitoring of students on the computer which allows teachers to have students work at their own pace and direct them to the next steps they need to take to be on track?


Mini Paper Week 5

There are many educational trends that have shaped our education system today. There are a few ever growing trends such as online learning, flipped classroom and assessments and measurement systems within the classroom that stand out. These types of trends can be seen throughout many school systems and have become a “normal” routine with many students. As these trends grow the future the now and the future can see many different benefits for students. Each student is different and all students learn differently. What may work for a student does not always work for the next, which is why it is important to have many options such as the trends listed here. The goal is to improve the learning experience and allowing students to have their own way of learning will benefit everyone who is involved in the entire educational process.

Online learning is something that many school systems and colleges have adopted to help students learn. This type of learning has changed the way that students and teacher interact in the classroom. Online learning is a nontraditional tool for students who want to take classes but can’t do it on campus because of various reasons such as jobs, family, etc. In some cases completing classes in an accelerated program will help them reach their goals more quickly than if they were to go the traditionally route of taking classes. These students need to complete their school more quickly and on their own time. There is much debate over whether or not online classes are educationally comparable to on campus classes and according to The Education Commission of the States study there is not much difference between the outcome of students going on campus or taking online courses. “In general, studies have not found a measurable difference in student learning between online and traditional courses.” (ECS, 2014, pg 3)

Flipped classroom is “The flipped classroom is a pedagogical approach in which the learning is student-centered rather than teacher-centered, mediated by technology.” (Jorge, R., 2015, PG 1) With the struggle of teachers trying to communicate with every student and the never ending struggle of trying to teach each student so they each take what they need and should from each lesson has become a little easier with this type of concept. Flipped classroom teaching style can include recorded lectures and a combination of online learning and classroom learning.. Teachers are able to work with all students as a group and have more individual time too. Students who grasp the information faster than others can work with other students in the classroom who may be struggling which can be a benefit to the classroom as well. The many different ways that a flipped classroom can be used is a great tool in helping each individual student get to their educational goals.

Assessments and measurements systems used in the classroom are ways of gauging where the school system is at with following and presenting the standards provided by the state. “On July 7, 2010, with a unanimous vote, the Connecticut State Board of Education (SBE) adopted new national academic standards known as the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in English language arts and mathematics that will establish what Connecticut’s public school students should know and be able to do as they progress through Grade K-12.” (CT.GOV, 2015, para 2) The common core was designed “to provide a set of standards for schools to follow so that students would meet a basic set of performance requirements.” (Zimmer, S., 2014, para 1).There are many people who dislike the Common Core practice and have many concerns about the whole process because they feel as though there is no room for each child to be an individual or learn at their own pace. Also teachers will have to change their entire approach of teaching to make sure that all students stay at the stages they should be at. With the assessments and measurements many students, parents and teachers find it to be a difficult and stressful time for the child especially if they are not at a learning level the Common Core says they should be at. “Teachers have become increasingly concerned, however, that states have tied evaluation systems to the new standards and assessments before the kinks have been ironed.” (Kappan, P. 2015, pg 16-17) There is so much pressure on children and the teachers to do well with the assessments. Low scores can reflect badly on teachers and the entire school.

With these three types of trends we can see schools struggling to keep up with the times. Online learning, flipped classrooms, assessments and measuring bring more budgeting for an educational facility which can be difficult. “The last three years of drastic austerity measures imposed by budget caps and sequestration have left education funding levels at pre-2008 levels.” (NEA, 2015, para 1) Federal and state cuts of education can reduce the amount of important things that the school can do for their student’s including making sure they have the tools and supplies needed to have technology for a flipped classroom or even reduced lunches for students who can’t afford lunch. The Common Core which is responsible for assessments and measuring trend, was majorly funded by the Gates foundation, over $200 million dollars was generated by this foundation for its creation and implementation. Flipped classroom and online learning have funding issues as well and with the budget cuts. “The growth and use of e-learning programs to increase revenues can create the potential for further reduction in state funding.” (Byrd, J., Mixon, P., 2013, pg 602) If the school can put money into something as important as online learning, it can help other areas of the school where funding is low. This will benefit the overall student body and have a greater impact for them.

There are many demographics for online learning, flipped classroom and assessments and measurements. Online learning has become an important tool for colleges especially because of the decreased enrollments through the years. Online learning allows the schools to enroll students from any location, age and various other characteristics that they may have never been able to enroll. This increases the schools revenue which is important for all areas of the educational facility. According to the article Thirty-two Trends Affecting Distance Education: An Informed Foundation for Strategic Planning, 96% of teachers who have used the flipping trend within their classroom would recommend this type of teaching practice to another teacher. Almost 50% of teachers have used the flipping technique for at least one lesson. Before flipped learning, about 50% of students were failing math and English. After flipped learning these numbers were dramatically reduced to 19% and 13% fails for math and English This type of information proves that flipping a classroom has many different benefits of a regular classroom. With common core and the assessments and measurements that take place interestingly enough has increased the amount of students who are homeschooled. 6 out of 10 teachers do not want the standard and majority of teachers are just unhappy about having this in their classrooms.

The trends discussed here are trends that are here to stay. Through the struggles, funding issues or the favored or frowned upon ideas that educators may have about these types of trends they are molding the future of education right in front of our eyes. There will be an increased amount of schools and colleges who will be online which will allow a greater demographics of students to get this type of education. Flipped classroom is something that can funded and adapted within schools to help and ensure each students get the type of direction they need to succeed. With the fact that all students learn differently, this will allow students to take control of the learning process and put the ball in the student’s court giving them more control of their education. Assessments and measuring has good and bad parts. There are many people who agree on the importance of these types of trends and others who disagree. This type of trend can get better or worse with time, and only time will tell the actual impact. Time is the factor in all trends coming and going. Education can benefit with what is learned and improved through the years, and hopefully will use the information in a more positive way to continue improving education for all future students.


Byrd, J., Mixon, P. (2012 Revenues and E-learning: Do Universities Need an Online P  Presence?, Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management Vol. 34, No. 6, 6         601–609, Retrieved from h a1ed-e7071bb9c32a%40sessionmgr4002&vid=12&hid=4102

Connecticut Department of Education (2015) Latest News, Retrieved from h  

ECS (2011) Next-Generation Models to Increase Success and Control Costs, H

Higher Education Reform, volume number 12, edition 4, Retrieved from

Gobry, P.E (2012) What is the Flipped Classroom and Why is it Amazing? Retrieved from

Howell, S., Lindsey, N., Williams P., (2003) Thirty-two Trends Affecting Distance E     Education: An Informed Foundation for Strategic Planning, Online Journal of D       Distance Learning Administration, Volume 6, Edition 3, Retrieved from

Jorge R. (2015) Active Learning and the Flipped Classroom, Training and Development, volume number 42, edition 5, Retrieved from h    c3d-ff60c6739c68%40sessionmgr115&vid=4&hid=127

National Education Association (2015) Education Funding, Retrieved from h  

Zimmer, S. (2014) Funding for the Common Core, Retrieved from h   1ed-e7071bb9c32a%40sessionmgr4002&vid=7&hid=4102


Mini Paper Week 3

Futuring is filled with many parts. When all the parts are used and played out correctly we can see many different outcomes for the future of education. Two important parts of futuring are scenarios and scanning. Scenarios, not only used for educational purposes, “have become extremely popular.” (Mietzner, D., Reger, G., pg. 221) are used to plan out a variety of different outcomes so that there is a smaller chance of unexpected events. Scanning is a process in which all the information you will be looking at is collected, such as different styles of doing things and popular trends. This information is then put together and used to compile ideas about the future. With all the time and effort put into futuring we can see how it is a very important step in the educational world. It is important to have a plan of action for the future so that teachers are getting the best of information to pass along to their students. If there is not futuring there may never be new and better ways to do things and everyone would be stuck in the same spot and not advancing at all.

Scenarios is a very big and important step and a very useful resource in futuring and has been around for a very long time. There are many types of scenarios such as “Complete formulated scenarios, Sketchy scenarios, Global scenarios, Problem specific scenarios” (Mietzner, D., Reger, G., pg. 225) which are used to provide many different outcomes for the future and can be used in many different areas, not just the education field. Businesses and school administration can use scenarios alike. Anyone who uses scenarios is in the end looking for many different ideas and outcomes that could potentially happen in the future.

While scenarios can be very beneficial there are also some down falls of this type of research. Positively, scenarios will give the end user many different ideas of things that can happen in the future good or bad. The information can be used to make better decisions on what can come next for the group. New ideas and developments can come from putting together many different ideas and a stronger more powerful outcome can happen. Many different and new developments can arise because people are thinking outside of the box. On the negative side, there is a lot of time and effort needed in collecting the information. Making sure that everything was taken into account when scenarios were developed and will all the work put into creating scenarios even be useful in the end? Also when all the scenarios are created and ready for use it will take time for the ideas to come in effect which can be disconcerting for people with all of the work they have put forth.

Scanning is the other step in futuring. Scanning is a process in which all the current trends and ways of doing things is collected from places such as the news, newspapers and magazines. Things that are collected are long-term items and not “what’s hot now” and quickly disappears. “The initial and continuing process of reviewing and analyzing current literature, Web sites, and other media to identify and describe noteworthy trends and their possible development and future impacts.” (WFS, para. 1) With scanning, useful information is extracted from many different areas and put altogether in one place. When all this information is gathered in one place it becomes a useful tool in the futuring process because it can give us a peek into what the type of trends can be in the future.

Along with scenarios, scanning have positive and negative sides to it. On the positive side there is a lot of information collected that is relevant to today. We can see what is working and what is not working within this collection. There are many different trends and ideas that work today that will have a positive effect on the future of education. Information can be collected and trends and ideas that are already instilled can now be made stronger and better for the future. Negatively, because there is so much information available, and it is changing so fast that it may be hard to determine what information is actually relevant. The process of scanning is time consuming and there is so much information out there that if the relevant information is not collected it could negatively impact the outcome. Many people can have different ideas of what is trending now based on their own thoughts and ideas. In this case it can be hard to choose what information can be used throughout the process and not just be one sided.

In conclusion, we can see that with these two steps, scenarios and scanning are important steps within futuring. There is a lot of information to be collected and used and there are both positive and negative effects of both areas. It is very important that special care is taken within each step so that proper information is gathered and used in the correct way to get the most positive outcome there can be. Scenarios can be very useful and help us all see the many different outcomes we can have for the future. We can step outside the box and think of many different way to do things to make the future better for our educators and students. With scanning we can see the many benefits this type of step has to offer. We can see what is trending now and use this information to make the trends stronger and more useful in the future, or create new ideas because of the experiences. Both are needed and useful steps in the futuring process and will help get to a better end result.


Mietzner, D., Reger, G. (2005) Advantages and disadvantages of scenario approaches for strategic foresight, Retrieved on November 6th from

World Future Society (2015) Methods, Retrieved on November 6th from,

Kirkwood, H. (2015) Futuring, Retrieved on November 7th from


Educational Trends 2015

There are many educational trends developing with the ever changing world. A few of the trends that stand out for me are demographics, online learning and different classrooms styles such as flipped classroom.

Things are changing every day and our countries demographics are included. “The U.S. population has experienced remarkable growth since 1950. From a base of about 152 million Americans in 1950, an additional 156 million persons were added to the population between 1950 and 2009.” (Heisler E., Shrestha, L., 2011, pg 1) We can see so much change within our educational system that brings forward leaps and bounds for teachers. Teachers are dealing with language barriers between teacher and student along with 76754172_XSteacher and parent. Within the classroom communication is key. When students and parents are not able to properly communicate with each other the entire structure crumbles. (Photo courtesy Global Post) According to the article called Do Language barriers Affect Student Performance in School, teachers should take extra steps such as highlighting new words, providing extra projects and literature related to the new words and most importantly develop strong relationships with each child and creating a safe and respectful environment.

Another trend that is growing quickly is online learning. Online learning has been a very important trend in my own life. Without taking classes online I would not be able to complete my masters degree at this time in my life. As a busy mom with a career and family there is not enough time in the day to go to school. According to US News 6.4 million people were taking at least one online course in 2011 and from then the number of people enrolled in online classes has only increased. There are many benefits of online learning. Students can learn at their own pace, do their work anytime any place, be in the comfort of their own home, be able to be with their family along with many others. For me it is less stressful knowing I wont have hours wasted in the car everyday driving to class and I am able to work around my work and home schedule. It is important for me to finish my degree and with online learning I am able to accomplish this goal. The Wall Street Journal published an interesting video explaining 6 benefits of online learning, which is very interesting. Technology and students being able to understand the materials better are a few of the ideas that Anant Agarwal explain in his video.

Last but not least flipped classroom is an interesting concept that teachers are using to make their classroom a better place for their students. In the short video below Katie a teacher from North Carolina explains why she “flipped” her classroom.

The concept has helped many teachers reach out to all the students in their classrooms and better understand what their needs really are.

In closing, trends will come and go but the ones that I have explained here I see in the future growing to even be bigger and better. With better communication tactics I see the barrier of language issues can be less of an issue. Online learning is expected to continue to grow and with demanding lives and new technology development it will make it easier for people to take online courses. Flipped classroom is something has proven time and again it effectiveness. Teachers are “flipping” for this concept because the benefits and refreshment it has brought to their classroom.


Elsworth, S. (2015) Do Language Barriers Affect Student Performance in School?, Retrieved from

Sheehy, K., (2013) Online Course Enrollment Climbs for the 10th Straight Year, Retrieved from



The Future of Technology

Technology in the classroom is shown to be a very important step in the educational field. From the New Horizon Report (2015) there are a few technologies that I5224241439_11c4c18a59 think are important to our Future in Education. Bring Your own Device along with Personalized Learning are two that stand out to me.

Bring your own device (BYOD) is a growing trend in high schools, colleges and work places around the world. There seems to be much up and down about this type of technology usage, but to me I think that the benefits can out weight the cons in this situation. The future will be changed by this type of technology along with many schools changing over to more online classes along with teachers using more online textbooks and materials. Students and employees are able to bring their own devices in which they are more acclimated and comfortable with. “For higher education institutions, often BYOD is less about them and more about the personalized content that users have loaded onto them.” (Johnson, Adams, Becker, Estrada & Freeman, 2015, pg 36,) People who use their own devices can better research information along with keep track of notes and study information better.

Although this type of technology has been in the classroom for some time now, it is an ever growing trend and we can see it more and more everywhere we go. “3 out of 4 students prefer to use tablets over text books, 2/3 students prefer their own device for learning and 37% of teachers will be using digital textbooks within 1 to 5 years.” (K-12 Blueprint, 2015) Many educational facilities along with the work place have special networking abilities to accommodate these types of situations. “Devices have become the gateways to personal working and learning environments that facilitate the exploration of new subjects at a pace that is unique to each learner.” (Johnson, Adams, Becker, Estrada & Freeman, 2015, pg 36,) With the assistance of a students or employees own device, they are able to seek for more and better ideas of the subject matter they are researching. Different programs and applications are available to better assist the researching process which makes it an invaluable tool when it comes to education.

I think that BYOD coincides with another technology which a growing trend is called Personalized Learning. Personalized Learning is a very important type of technology to have knowing that not every student learns at the same pace. BYOD and Personalized learning can fit together very well. Allowing students to use their own technology can open a gateway for them to learn at their own paces and seek out as much information they need to complete the subject matter at hand. “The goal of personalized learning is to enable students to determine the strategy and pace at which they learn.” (Johnson, Adams, Becker, Estrada & Freeman, 2015, pg 26,) Educators want to see every student succeed and do well in their educational career and implementing some type of Personalized Learning even if only a small amount can change the way students do in their studies.

In closing, with so many different technologies available, it is important to seek out technologies that will actually be beneficial to the people using it. These two types of technologies are only the beginning of things that we can see that can make a huge difference in the educational field. Not only do students benefit but educators also benefit. Thinking of the way the future is moving we need to implement these types of technologies to keep up with the pace of the educational trends we see. Technology is something ever growing and ever changing and we need to grow with it.

Johnson, L., Adams Becker, S., Estrada, V., & Freeman, A. (2015). NMC Horizon Report: 2015 K-12 Edition.  Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium.  Retrieved from

K-12 Blueprint, (2015) BYOD, Retrieved on 11/11/2015 from

Riedel, C. (2014, February 3) Ten Major Technology Trends in Education. Retrieved on November 11, 2015 from

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My Educational Journey

I started my college career right after high school in 2001. Since then I have worked very hard to get where I am today. November 2013 I finished a huge part of my educational goal by completing my Bachelors Degree at Post University.

Today in 2015 I am starting my first class on my journey to finishing my Masters in Education. I will be the first person in my family to complete this type of degree. This makes my family proud and most importantly this makes me proud.

When I think about my goals for my future working on my M. Ed. program I think about the S.M.A.R.T. goal system that I have used in the past. S.M.A.R.T stands for Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic and Timely.

S-I will be getting my Masters Degree in Education from Post University.

M-I will be getting my Masters Degree by end of year 2017

A- Getting my degree will take a lot of hard work but in the end I will be able to use the degree to further my career in education.

R- To get my degree by the end of 2017 I will have to take classes consecutively for 2 years.

T- October 2015 is the start of my journey to completing my M. Ed. degree.

This being said, it is very important for me to work hard and stay on top of my goals. I hope to work with high school students or adults with online classes and/or work place trainings. I am also interested in becoming an educational trainer which would be a very interesting career traveling around and training teachers and other educators. Getting my Masters Degree will help me get to where it is I want to be.

Mini Paper Week 2

The future of education is a very important topic that should be paid much attention to. Future students will count on the steps that are taken now to make the educational process better then what it is currently. This does not mean that the current state of education is not ok, it just means that making it better in the future is better. St. John’s School located in Old Saybrook Connecticut, is a perfect example of successful education for the future. The preparation they give to students in an ever changing world will lead students to a successful future.

Saint John’s School is a private, Roman Catholic educational facility that will be used for this Educational context series. Saint Bridget’s School is a Roman Catholic facility that is in the heart of a community that is rated one of the top 100 places in Connecticut for young people. The facility is in a safe and nurturing environment which includes grades Pre K to grades 8. The curriculum includes spiritual and emotional support. Religion classes are taught daily along with lessons based around the common core standards have been in place since 2012. The facility also has sports, arts and other activities for the students. “The facility is a member of the New England Association of Schools & Colleges (NEASC) and a teaching apostolate of the Sisters of Charity of Our Lady Mother of the Church (SCMC).” (St. Johns University, 2015)

The population of St. John’s educational facility is 182 students. The number of students has declined from 2005 until 2011. The ratio to male to female students is almost 50/50. Majority of students are of white ethnicity (142 students) two or more (4), Asian (3) Black (1). 92.5% of people living in Old Saybrook are above the poverty line while a small percentage 7.5% of people fall below the poverty line.

St. John’s School was originally founded in the 1960’s. “The first parish school for grades 1 to 8 was open from 1964 to 1972, but closed due to staffing and financial difficulties.” (St. John’s

School, 2015) in 1994 the school was able to re-open with the help of the St. John’s parish which the school is associated with. Starting in 1999 the first upgrade projects began and continued through the years. The school has since celebrated its 20th year anniversary in 2014.

In 1972 when the school closed its doors, it was due to low staffing and not enough funds to keep the school open. When the church stepped in along with the church community, there was enough funds to be able to re-open the school. With the backing of the church and community there were many new things added to the school such as a new wing, updated science lab, the gym, auditorium and cafeteria and the roof, heating and cooling system were also updated. The upgrades have taken place between the years of 1999 and 2013. (St. John’s School, 2015)

            St. John’s School has many great teaching practices along with a strong vision for its students. The school follows the common core guidelines and uses standardized tests which have shown student growth with the results. A few of the ways they prepare their students to be successful are teaching values within their religion practicing it every day, being active in the church and community events, “Core curriculum of Reading, Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies and Geography.” (St. Johns School, 2015) Foreign language, home work, reading buddies, time management skills, science and math groups are only a handful of support and programs that are offered to students at St. John’s.

            The vision of St. John’s School is “Educating the whole child – spiritual, academic, social and physical – builds a strong foundation for their lives, their school and their community.” (St. John’s School, 2015)

            The two technologies listed in the Horizon Report that best fit with St. John’s School would be Measuring Learning and Improving Digital Literacy. Both of these items are important because they better serve the students. By measuring learning St. John’ s is able to see where there may be weaknesses and they will be able to also see the strengths and fix any problem areas they see. The use of technology in the classroom is a better way to expand the abilities of the students. They are able to do research and develop ideas about things they are learning. “The report, IT Opportunities in the Education Market, revealed that 78 percent of K-12 teachers and administrators believe technology has positively impacted the classroom and the productivity of students. Roughly 65 percent of educators surveyed also believe that students are more productive today than they were three years ago due to the increased reliance on technology in the classroom.” (Lytle, R. 2011)

            With the switch to the common core learning style in 2012. St. John’s School’s goal is to make sure that they are taking the proper steps to making sure they do what they can to help their students reach their goals in their educational career. Measuring the schools learning has proved to be positive for this school. With both the common core and the standardized tests that have come along with it the school is seeing positive results. “Curriculum meets or exceeds all State of Connecticut regulations and guidelines. Iowa standardized tests are used for diagnostic purposes & consistently show individual student growth.” (St. John’s School, 2015)

            The school offers an updated library with computers and resources for the students. There is also computer technology in each classroom that the students have access to in order to help them with their daily class activities and homework.

            St. Johns school proves to be a great place for learning to take place. With a facility that cares about their students and teachers and does everything they can to give the tools and resources to both should be recognized positively. It shows through the results of the standardize testing that the school is moving in the right direction for the future.


 St. Johns School (2015) Saint John School, a Sisters of Charity Roman Catholic School, Educating the Whole Child from Pre-K to Grade 8. Retrieved on October 30, 2015 from

Elementary, (2015) St. Johns School, Retrieved on October 30, 2015 from

City Data (2015) Old Saybrook, Connecticut (CT) Poverty Rate Data, Retrieved on October 30, 2015 from

Lytle, R. (2011) Study: Emerging Technology Has Positive Impact in Classroom, Retrieved on October 31, 2015 from,

Breslow, L. (2007) Methods of Measuring Learning Outcomes and Value Added, Retrieved on October 31, 2015 from,